Although the general scope of the Institute is the entire Southern Campaign, it has a particular focus on the Revolutionary War in the Carolina backcountry.  Keen to recover their lands and be rewarded for their loyalty to the crown, these men realized that the best way to convince the British to undertake a major operation in the South would be to exaggerate the level of potential Loyalist support. On March 11 he commenced the bombardment of the town. His 2,200 men force was landed on Long Island (adjacent to Sullivan's Island on which the fort was positioned), and they found the channel dividing the two islands too deep to ford. Moultrie fell back toward Charleston rather than engaging, and Prevost was within 10 miles (16 km) on May 10 before he began to see resistance. After Charleston, organized American military activity in the South virtually collapsed. He stripped his army of all excess baggage in an effort to keep up with the fast-moving Patriots. Rockfish Creek is in Duplin County, rather out of the way for Rutherford's force as it moves toward Wilmington from Hillsborough. Gates was replaced by Washington's most dependable subordinate, General Nathanael Greene. However, we can add a correction below it if necessary. The rear guard, having succeeded in its objective, abandoned that post a few days later. It was only after Nathanael Greene slipped past Cornwallis after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in 1781 that the British finally lost this advantage in the South. Ohio.  Greene eventually felt strong enough to face Cornwallis directly—near New Garden, North Carolina (modern day Greensboro, North Carolina). Because this piece comes from a book published by UNC Press, we can't make any changes directly to the article should it need to be corrected. Some Georgia militia companies made it into East Florida, but they were checked in the May Battle of Thomas Creek. Loyalist opposition in the backcountry was dominated by Thomas Fletchall, a vocal and active opponent of attempts to resist King and Parliament. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. An army of up to 3,000 Patriot militia under Colonel Richard Richardson marched against Loyalist recruiting centers in South Carolina, flushing them out and frustrating attempts by the Loyalists to organize. Against the wishes of Clinton, Cornwallis resolved to invade Virginia in the hopes that cutting the supply lines to the Carolinas would make American resistance there impossible. Wright escaped captivity and reached the fleet. George W. Kyte, "Strategic Blunder: Lord Cornwallis Abandons the Carolinas, 1781.". The Snow Campaign was one of the first major military operations of the American Revolutionary War in the southern colonies. Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pension Statements Pension application of Thomas Blalock or Blalack W18615 Transcribed by T.W. Georgia's royal governor, James Wright, nominally remained in power until January 1776, when the unexpected arrival of British ships near Savannah prompted the local Committee of Safety to order his arrest. Cornwallis knew that Greene had divided his forces and wanted to face either Morgan's or Greene's contingent before they could rejoin. The combined French-American forces suffered some 901 casualties, to the British 54. Thank you for communicating with us about the Wilmington Campaign article. , In March 1781, in response to the threat of Arnold and Phillips, General Washington had dispatched the Marquis de Lafayette to defend Virginia. While in South Carolina, Cornwallis wrote in a letter to Clinton that "Our assurances of attachment from our poor distressed friends in North Carolina are as strong as ever. Ritcheson, C.; "Loyalist Influence on British Policy Toward the United States After the American Revolution"; Rodgers, T.; "Siege of Savannah During the American Revolutionary War"; Franklin B. Wickwire and Mary B. Wickwire. Kepner, F, "A British View of the Siege of Charleston, 1776". Dunmore was driven from an island in Chesapeake Bay that summer, and never returned to Virginia.. Smith's blocking force encountered outposts and cleared them with skirmishing at Moore's Plantation and later fought at Seven Creeks with South Carolina Loyalists. This he achieved by the end of June, in spite of a reverse sustained at Lord Rawdon's hands at Hobkirk's Hill (2 miles north of Camden) on April 25. 929.373 CLA NCC (3 vol.).  Such a shocking reversal in fortune, coming as it had on the back of a rare naval defeat, served to increase the shift in British popular opinion against the war. About 2,000 British troops died in these engagements. Two days later Rutherford sent his entire force into Raft Swamp to flush out Loyalists and deny them a refuge. NCpedia will not publish personal contact information in comments, questions, or responses. In August 1781 the return of capable militia under Gen. Griffith Rutherford, who had been exchanged after nearly a year as a British prisoner, gave the state a commander who could mount a campaign against Wilmington. If Raft Swamp were substituted for Rockfish, then the sentence later in the paragraph about Rutherford sending the rest of his force to Raft Swamp two days later to flush out the Loyalists would make more sense. The British destruction of about 10,000 hogsheads of tobacco (roughly 10 million pounds) in 1780 and 1781 became known as the Tobacco War.  Prevost's foray against Charleston was notable for his troop's arbitrary looting and pillaging, which enraged friend and foe alike in the South Carolina low country. His tactics have been likened to the Fabian strategy of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, the Roman general who wore down the superior forces of the Carthaginian Hannibal by a slow war of attrition. This consists of the official rolls of loyalists during the American Revolution who were recruited from North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The lowland communities, dominated by Charleston, sided strongly with the Patriots, while the back country held a large number of Loyalist sympathizers. Please allow one business day for replies from NCpedia. Gregory De Van Massey, "The British Expedition to Wilmington, January-November, 1781," NCHR 64 (October 1989). The states carried on their governmental functions, and the war was carried on by partisans such as Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter, William R. Davie, Andrew Pickens, and Elijah Clarke.  Without informing Clinton, Cornwallis marched north from Wilmington into Virginia to engage in raiding operations, where he eventually met the army commanded by William Phillips and Benedict Arnold, which had engaged in raiding activities there. Their belief in widespread Loyalist support was based on the accounts of Loyalist exiles in London who had direct access to the British Secretary of State for America, George Germain. , When Cornwallis left Greensboro for Wilmington, he left the road open for Greene to begin the American reconquest of South Carolina. From May 22 to June 19, 1781 Greene led the Siege of Ninety-Six, which he was only forced to abandon when word arrived that Rawdon was bringing troops to relieve the siege.  Clinton began constructing siege lines.  Patriot recruiting was by then outstripping that of the Loyalists, and a major campaign (called the Snow Campaign due to unusually heavy snowfall) involving as many as 5,000 Patriots led by Colonel Richard Richardson succeeded in capturing or driving away most of the Loyalist leadership. Bicheno; 2001. Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Pensions/Statements hosted by SCAR SouthernCampaign.org ALLEN, John [1756 - bef. He moved toward Campbellton on 1 October and combined forces with Gen. John Butler, which gave the little army a total of 1,050 infantry and 350 cavalry. During the first three years of the conflict, 1775–1778, the largest military encounters between Continental Army and the British Army had been in the New England and Middle colonies, around the cities of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. As a consequence, "Bloody Tarleton" or "Bloody Ban" became a hated name, and the phrase, "Tarleton's quarter"—referring to his reputed lack of mercy, or "quarter"—soon became a rallying cry for the Patriots. Murtie June Clark. He was joined in mid-January 1779 by Brigadier General Augustine Prevost, leading troops that marched up from Saint Augustine, taking over outposts along the way. This victory left the American military structure in the South in ruins. The Revolutionary War Rolls were filmed by the National Archives in 1957. “The Southern Campaign Animated Map is a wonderful way to orient visitors to our park and provide context regarding its profound significance in the Revolutionary War. Later Rutherford sent his entire force into Raft Swamp on that date remaining British army to continue.... To keep up with the resources two weeks of battles, most of American. Two weeks Illustrated History Admiral Peter Parker led an assault on Fort Sullivan, which guarded the harbor! 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